CO2 and winter temperature effects on white birch
rice was investigated. Rice plants were grown with Ni (20 and 40 mg kg– 1) and Ca (80 and 160 mg kg–1) in different combinations and without Ni and Ca as a control. Nickel (40 mg kg–1) significantly decreased shoot (54%) and root dry weights (54%), chlorophyll content (57%), the photosynthetic rate (two-fold), transpiration rate (34%) and stomatal conductance (39%) compared to control. Application of Ni (40 mg kg–1) increased the Ni concentration in shoots 22-fold and in roots eleven-fold compared to control.
The results are discussed in relation to the culture technique employed. from low latitude (warmer climate populations have relatively fast intrinsic growth and development rates compared to those from cooler climates. These synergistic effects of genotype and temperature across the landscape (co-gradient variation are likely to accentuate phenotypic variation in these traits, and this interaction must be accounted for when predicting how H. merope will respond to temperature change through time. These results highlight the importance of understanding how variation in life-history traits may arise in response to environmental change. Without this knowledge, we may fail to detect whether organisms are tracking environmental change, and if they are, whether it is by plasticity, adaptation or both. Effects of Increased Flight on the Energetics and Life History of the Butterfly Speyeria mormonia. sampled in seven sites across 3341Ã‚ ha. We used wing -thorax ratio as a proxy for flight capacity and hierarchical Bayesian modelling to estimate stratum preference.
scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly , Callophrys rubi. We demonstrate that the omnidirectional green colour arises from the gyroid cuticular structure grown in the domains of different orientation. We also show that this three-dimensional structure, operating as a biophotonic crystal, gives rise to various polarization effects. We briefly discuss the possible biological utility of the green coloration and polarization effects. Reflectivity of the gyroid biophotonic crystals in the ventral wing scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi.
coloration, but also at genomic regions unlinked to color pattern . We observe high levels of divergence between the incipient species H. erato and H. himera, suggesting that divergence may accumulate early in the speciation process. Comparisons of genomic divergence between the incipient species and allopatric races suggest that limited gene flow cannot account for the observed high levels of divergence between the incipient species.
These ROS are O2âˆ’, H2O2, and -OH which can re- act with many other biomolecules. Several me- tallic ions are produced by radical displacement reactions. These metallic ions inhibit the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Hence, enzymic anti- oxidant defense system of plants is affected and adversely inhibits plant growth and productivity. Mycorrhizal fungi are important in phytostabili- zation of toxic heavy metals.
Main effects of nitrogen supply and drought stress upon whole-plant carbon allocation in poplar
Nickel addition significantly improved dry matter of maize at all levels compared to control, however maximum increase in shoot and root was observed at 68 ÂµM. Addition of Ni in nutrient solution also increased Ni concentration in roots and shoots. Addition of Ni decreased Mn and Cu concentration in shoots, however it increased Zn concentration in shoots. Maximum decrease in manganese concentrations in shoots and roots (20% & 45%, respectively) was recorded with nickel at 68 ÂµM and maximum decrease (17%) in copper concentration was observed with 68 ÂµM in shoots, however copper concentration in roots increased with nickel at all levels. Bioadsorption is an effective low cost tool for cleaning polluted environment.
Johnson nutrient solution was applied to supply nutrition with four levels of nickel at 0 (control), 17, 51 and 68 ÂµM. Plants were grown for 50 days after sowing.
In an experiment on Salix viminalis L., colonized by Thelephora terrestris (Ehrh.) Fr., the carbon use efficiency calculated by this method was on overage 85% based on shoot tissue production, and 95% based on whole plant production.