We develop new stochastic schemes for the EC-Earth climate model and evaluate their impact on model performance. While several benefits are found, the impact is sometimes too strong, suggesting such schemes must be carefully calibrated before use. Data from the First ISLSCP Field Experiment, 1987-1989, is used to assess how well the JULES land-surface model simulates water stress in tallgrass prairie vegetation. We find that JULES simulates a decrease in key carbon and water cycle variables during the dry period, as expected, but that it does not capture the shape of the diurnal cycle on these days. These results will be used to inform future model development as part of wider evaluation efforts.
This paper presents a new numerical model able to simulate for the first time the evolution of Earth’s surface at global scale under different conditions of precipitation, sea level and tectonic. This is significant as it can help to bridge the gap between local and global scales predictions of Earth past and future variations.
The Emotional Reactions of School Bullies and their Victims
Results demonstrated positive correlations between family violence perception and reports of violence in school. Family-school relations is understood as interdependent and the school as a propitious place for dialogue aimed at preventing violence in both contexts (family and school). The purpose was not to blame one or another, but consider them as two institutions that can establish effective partnership to combat bullying.
The score of the spatial pattern of radiative fluxes for MRI-ESM2 is better than for any CMIP5 model. We present modifications implemented in the various physics schemes.
Bullying that occurs repeatedly is defined as a form of violence towards another individual where the intention is to damage that individual. Crucial in the dynamic of the victimization is a physical and psychological imbalance in the power balance between the bully and the victim.
Furthermore, the relationships between bullying and some background factors were investigated. The sample consists of 329 children (168 boys, 161 girls), drawn from the fourth- through sixth-grade classrooms of three Flemish elementary schools. Method. A self-report questionnaire on bullying was completed by 113 girls and 125 boys aged 11-14 years in a middle school in Rome.
The 1.5â€‰Â°C of warming level shows significantly less change compared to the 2â€‰Â°C level, indicating the importance of mitigation. A state-of-the-art regional climate model ensemble for Europe is investigated for extreme precipitation intensities. The models poorly reproduce short duration events of less than a few hours. Further, there is poor connection to some known hotspots for extreme cases.
Results show that ozone levels are largely driven by long-range transport over both continents while other pollutants such as carbon monoxide or aerosols are mainly controlled by domestic sources. Use of multi-model ensembles can help to reduce the uncertainties in individual models. This study investigates the value of assimilating coarse-resolution remotely sensed soil moisture data into high-resolution land surface models for improving soil moisture and runoff modeling. The soil moisture estimates in this study, with complete spatio-temporal coverage and improved spatial resolution from the assimilation, offer a new reanalysis product for the monitoring of surface soil water content and other hydrological fluxes at 3â€‰km resolution over Europe. Oceanic surface conditions coming from coupled ocean-atmosphere global climate models bear considerable biases over the historical climate.