We use an ensemble of regional model simulations to test different mixing state assumptions and found that a combination of internal and external mixing may better reproduce sunphotometer observations. Model estimates of the mean European wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur for 1990 to 2010 were within 40 % of the observed values.
This paper reports data on the relationship between bully/victim problems and the coping strategies used when confronted with a peer argument. Specifically, we examine the extent to which bully/victim problems are related to five types of coping strategies (Social Support Seeking, Problem-Solving, Distancing, Internalising and Externalising). Associations between being a victim of bullying and psychosomatic health have been examined among 856 Norwegian school adolescents aged 13 to 15 years. Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were applied.
However, there are some cases where victims do not become bullies after being bullied. What constitutes the differences between the two groups, who show different response strategies despite the similar experiences of victimization, is the main question that the current study poses.
They were, however, much more critical in evaluating their superiors. Only approximately 60% of the members of school management could be an ethical model for other teachers. Also taken in consideration researches’ results we may notice that violence between students at school generality is more expanded in countries school comparing with that one from the city. Frequently these distinctions have also statistical significance, even on 0.01 and 0.001degree. On the other hand, results express that there is no considerable distinction between boys and girls regarding violence at school.
Land surface models (LSMs) describe how carbon and water fluxes react to environmental change. They are key component of climate models, yet they differ enormously. Many perform poorly, despite having many parameters. We outline a development strategy emphasizing robustness, reliability and realism, none of which is guaranteed by complexity alone. We propose multiple constraints, benchmarking and data assimilation, and representing unresolved processes stochastically, as tools in this endeavour.
It then examines the risk factors associated with being a victim of bullying. Self-reported data from a nationally representative sample of 12,514 Grade Nine South African students, who participated in the 2015 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, was used. Data were subjected to analysis using independent samples t-tests and hierarchical generalised linear modelling. The results revealed different patterns of bullying victimisation and perpetration by the socio-economic status (SES) of the school, with students attending schools with a low SES reporting higher levels of bullying.
It provides daily and 4-day forecasts and analyses for the previous day for major gas and particulate pollutants and their main precursors. These products are based on a multi-model approach using seven state-of-the-art models developed in Europe. An evaluation of the performance of the system is discussed in the paper. The representation of moist convection (thunderstorms and rain showers) in climate models represents a major challenge, as this process is usually approximated due to the lack of appropriate computational resolution.
In the second phase of the intervention research, namely the collection and synthesis of data, the opinions of professional persons were sought in a focus group regarding the essence of the problem as well as to identify functional elements that needed to be included in the intervention. In order to refine the intervention prototype, it was important for the voices of the victims of bullying participants to be heard about their experience and management of bullying behaviour, and to discuss alternative ways of managing bullying.
The students filled at the Peer Bullying Scale child form -bully subscale (PBS-CF), Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory short form (CSEI-sf) and Inventory of Cognitions Related to Bullying for Children (ICBC), and before and after the intervention and during 4 months follow up. All the scores were analyzed using repeated measures Anova. Results showed that, although there was no significant difference between group x-time interaction, the scores related to bullying had a significant relation with time. This significance was related to the difference between experimental and placebo group’s scores in pre-test and post-tests. In both groups the bullying scores decreased significantly.