GERD in ‘000 current PPP $

GERD in ‘000 current PPP $

The National Statistical Institute presents the bilingual (Bulgarian/English) brochure Bulgaria 2018 to users of statistical information. The brochure is addressed to a wide range of users (international institutions, business, students, experts etc.) and changes the traditional presentation of statistical information by offering an innovative structure with a parallel translation in English. The publication contains topical statistical information about the demographic, social and economic development of the country over the 2013 – 2017 period. In 2008 the total expenditure amount to 0.49% of GDP, which is only 0.year 01 percentage points higher than the previous.

The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) provides a guide to conducting an R&D survey for countries starting to measure R&D (please find the link in the reference section below). In addition to summarizing main definitions and concepts from the Frascati Manual, this guide presents the relevant R&D indicators, addresses common issues encountered in data collection, provides a simple project management template, and proposes generic model questionnaires for the Government, Higher education, Business enterprise and Private non-profit sectors. Data for this indicator is primarily collected through nationally representative R&D surveys, which are conducted by the national statistical offices or relevant line ministries such as the ministry of science and technology.

The data is broken down by occupation further, by qualification, by gender, by size class, by citizenship, by age groups, by fields of science, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2) and by regions (NUTS 2 level). Science, engineering and technology (SET) annual expenditure by UK government departments, research councils and higher education funding councils; by current and constant prices. Research and experimental development (R) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications (Frascati Manual, 2002 edition, § 63 ). R intensity (R expenditures as a percentage of GDP) is an indicator of high political importance at the EU, national and regional levels.

R&D data are coherent with data obtained from the Innovation survey. Data are available for all users on the NSI website and on NSI information system INFOSTAT under the heading R&D, Innovation and Information Society.. Information and Innovation Society.} The statistical survey on research and development activity (R&D) provides internationally comparable information about the characterization of resources (expenditure and personnel) on research and development in Bulgaria. R&D personnel data is available in full-time equivalent (FTE), in head count (HC), as a % of employment and as a % of labour force.

GERD includes expenditure by business enterprises, government, higher education and private non-profit expenditure on R&D. GERD includes total intramural expenditure on R&D performed within a national country, funded and from abroad but excludes payments for R&D performed abroad nationally. GERD tends to be under-represented in countries with a high % of SMEs and or with innovation in non-manufacturing sectors.

In 2014, the total amount of expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) was 656.1 million BGN which was 25.8% more than the previous year. In 2015, the total amount of expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) was 847.2 million BGN which was 27.4% more than the previous year. In 2016, the total amount of expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) was 734.0 million BGN which was 13.7% less than the previous year. In 2017, the total amount of expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) was 760.2 million BGN, which was 3.5% more than the previous year.

“Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative and systematic work undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge – including knowledge of humankind, culture and society – and to devise new applications of available knowledge “(Frascati Manual, 2015 edition, par 44). Domain comprises national statistics on R&D expenditure, R&D personnel and government budget appropriations or outlays on R&D (GBAORD). Data are collected in several occasions in a year and they consist of several breakdowns such as institutional R&D performing and funding sectors, types of costs and types of R&D, fields of science and economic activities.

Total intramural R&D expenditure (GERD) comprises current costs and capital expenditure on R&D. All data are broken down by the above mentioned sectors of performance. The R&D expenditure is further broken down by source of funds, by type of costs, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2), by size class, by type of R&D, by fields of science, by socio-economic objectives and by regions (NUTS 2 level). Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) is total intramural expenditure on R&D performed in the national territory during a specific reference period.

total intramural r d expenditure gerd

Total intramural R&D expenditure (at current prices) (or gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD)) performed on the national/regional territory during a given year, in millions of euro and as a percentage of GDP. The indicator thus includes domestically performed R&D which is financed from abroad but excludes R&D funds paid abroad.

total intramural r d expenditure gerd

Venture Capital Investment (VCI) is the subset of private equity which is intended for investments in listed companies and firms which develop new products and technologies. VCI serves as the early stage funding (seed and start-up), or it is used for expansion of a venture (later venture). Data from national R&D surveys based on the Frascati Manual, OECD,

Derived indicator ‘Gross domestic expenditure on R&D as a percentage of GDP’ is one of the eight headline indicators of Europe 2020 strategy. R&D expenditure or in other words Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) is total intramural expenditure on R&D performed in the national territory during a specific reference period.

The R&D intensity (the ratio of GERD to GDP) increased, rising from 1.31% in 2013 to 1.38% in 2014. In 2014, in current price terms Italy’s gross domestic expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) was nearly 22,3 billion euro. It increased by 6.2% compared to 2013.

In constant price terms, it increased by 5.3%. R&D intensity (R&D expenditures as a percentage of GDP) is an indicator of high political importance at the EU, national and regional levels because this indicator measures the Europe 2020 strategy’s headline target to invest 3% of EU’s GDP in R&D. The growth of the indicator seems to be promising. Over the last decade, the total intramural R&D expenditure in Poland increased four times while the UE average grew just by one-third nearly.

The core statistics and related indicators cover innovation activities, cooperation, development, expenditures and turnover. Each survey wave may additionally include other indicators like innovation objectives or information sources and analyze further particular aspects or drivers of enterprise innovation (eco-innovation in 2008, skills and creativity in 2010). Science, technology and innovation are important drivers for the Europe 2020 growth strategy.

It covers all expenditure for R&D performed in the economy, including both current costs and capital expenditures for R&D. Slovenia is often considered a leader in the region. Its GERD/ GDP ratio rose from 1.63% to 2.59% between 2008 and 2013, albeit within a contracting GDP. Slovenia is also the only country in Southeast Europe where business enterprises fund and perform the majority of R&D. Although business R&D has stagnated in most other countries, R&D intensity has risen in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Serbia and Macedonia; as of 2012, it was close to 1% in Serbia (0.91), which was also performing better in innovation surveys.. which was performing better in innovation surveys also.}.

total intramural r d expenditure gerd

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