Enhancement of rat colon carcinogenesis by wheat bran consumption during the stage of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine administration. The influence of a diet rich in wheat fibre on the human faecal flora.
Due to their gelling behaviour, these soluble polysaccharides may decrease the rate of gastric emptying and influence small intestinal transit time. Pectic substances are a complex group of polysaccharides in which D-galacturonic acid is a principal constituent. Aspinall (1970) studied that cellulose is insoluble in strong alkali and there is portion (10–15%) of cellulose, referred to as “amorphous”, that is more readily acid hydrolyzed. Cellulose’s mechanical strength, resistance to biological degradation, low aqueous solubility and resistance to acid hydrolysis result from hydrogen bonding within the microfibrils. Components of primary cell wall with D-galacturonic acid as principal components.
Growth in addition to feed intake
Crude fibre is the measure of the quantity of indigestible (non-fermentable) fibre in the diet. In pet foods, the fibre is measured using different laboratory methods and listed as either crude fibre or total dietary fibre. The primary function and benefit of fibre is to increase bulk and water in intestinal contents, maintain optimum levels of good bacteria and promote gut health. Heier said that the dietary fibre can be used to reformulate products to cut saturated fat, which has been linked to heart disease, and the overall calorie count. For over ten years, Borregaard has worked on the development of a new technology that enables it to produce a wood-based dietary fibre that works as a fat replacer.
Their research indicates that fiber doesn’t deliver many of its benefits directly to our bodies. But while the benefits are clear, it’s not so clear why fiber is so great. Indeed, the evidence for fiber’s benefits extends beyond any particular ailment: Eating more fiber seems to lower people’s mortality rate, whatever the cause.
These water-soluble form, bile acids e.g., deoxycholic and lithocholic are adsorbed to dietary fiber and an increased fecal loss of sterols, dependent in part on the amount and type of fiber. Not yet formally proposed as an essential macronutrient, dietary fiber has importance in the diet, with regulatory authorities in many developed countries recommending increases in fiber intake.
Recent data have indicated that while non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) are important for human health, RS may be as significant if not more so for many health conditions (Topping & Clifton, 2001). This definition can be considered to include some components of what is now known as resistant starch (RS). Dietary Fibber: Don’t be fooled by polydextrose and other fiber additives 3 additional grams of dietary fiber from oats can decrease blood cholesterol by 2%. There is a 1% increase in fecal energy loss for every 6 grams of dietary fiber added (check yourself disordered eaters – avoid over-consuming fiber supplements in the hopes of losing weight.
Such an increase may be due to a number of factors, prolonged cecal residence of the fiber, increased bacterial mass, or increased bacterial end-products. Enlargement of the cecum is a common finding when some dietary fibers are fed and this is now believed to be normal physiological adjustment. The presence of bacteria in the colon produces an ‘organ’ of intense, mainly reductive, metabolic activity, whereas the liver is oxidative. Human pancreatic enzyme activity is reduced when incubated with most fiber sources.
Guar gum and high amylose cornstarch were combined with wheat bran to evaluate the possibility of increasing distal levels of propionic or butyric acids, respectively. In addition, the following combinations of substrates were evaluated to examine their effect on SCFA patterns and/or site of SCFA production: guar gum and pectin, guar gum and wheat bran and high amylose cornstarch and wheat bran. In this study, the content and pattern of SCFA from various indigestible carbohydrate sources were studied along the hindgut of rats.
This effect appears to be countered by the addition of protein to the whole-wheat bread (Sandström et al., 1980). Addition of whole-wheat bread to meals, however, decreases absorption of nonheme iron in normal subjects (K.M. People who took two tablespoons of bran daily for 6 months had normal total iron-binding capacity and normal serum However, vegetarians consuming high-fiber diets have normal levels of hemoglobin and serum transferrin, as well as normal zinc levels in serum, hair, and urine (Anderson et al., 1981; King et al., 1981), copper levels in serum, and copper and selenium levels in urine (Gibson et al., 1983; Shultz and Leklem, 1983).
(1994) proposed orange peel residues to be good source of dietary fibre. Dietary fibre is a complex mixture of polysaccharides with many different functions and activities as it passes through the gastrointestinal tract. The physiological effects of this fibre source comply with what might be expected from a soluble fibre. The most widely accepted classification for dietary fibre has been to differentiate dietary components on their solubility in a buffer at a defined pH, and/or their fermentability in an invitro system using an aqueous enzyme solution representative of human alimentary enzymes.
- Chemistry, Physiology, and Health Effects, eds D Kritchevsky D, Ch Bonfield & JW Anderson, Chapter 32 New York.
- The presence of bacteria in the colon produces an ‘organ’ of intense, mainly reductive, metabolic activity, whereas the liver is oxidative.
- (2005) reported, cereals to be one of the main sources of dietary fibre, contributing to about 50% of the fibre intake in western countries, 30–40% dietary fibre may come from vegetables, about 16% from fruits and the remaining 3% from other minor sources.
- More definitive analytical epidemiologic studies that are designed carefully to include adequate variation of dietary fiber intake in the study population; improved methods for assessing dietary intake in general; improved quality and quantity of data about specific fractions of fiber consumed by the study population; adequate sample size; and collaboration among investigators to adopt a common protocol and method of dietary assessment so that any inconsistencies in results can be related to differences in populations.
1. Slows sugar absorption (suppresses post-meal bloodstream sugar rise)
Dietary fibre holds all the characteristics required to be considered as an important ingredient in the formulation of functional foods, due to its beneficial health effects. They reported that extrusion was associated with an increase in total dietary fibre contents and decrease in starch content in steam peels. (1983) at 8 laboratories using different analytical methods, reported that heat treated potato samples contained more water insoluble dietary fibre and less starch than raw samples.
Schulze MB, Schulz M, Heidemann C, Schienkiewitz A, Hoffmann K, Boeing H: Fiber and Magnesium Intake and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study and Meta-analysis. McKeown NM, Meigs JB, Liu S, Wilson PW, Jacques PF: Whole-grain intake is favorably associated with metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the Framingham Offspring Study.
Beta-glucan from oat bran, whole oats, oatrim, or rolled oats (3 grams per day) The FDA classifies which ingredients qualify as being “fiber”, and requires for product labeling that a physiological benefit is gained by adding the fiber ingredient. In the preferred food choices of today’s youth, this value may be as low as 20%, a factor considered by experts as contributing to the obesity levels seen in many developed countries. The AND’s recommendation for children is that intake should equal age in years plus 5 g/day (e.g., a 4 year old should consume 9 g/day).
While clinical studies have shown changes in the microbiota at lower levels of inulin intake, some of the health effects require higher than 15 grams per day to achieve the benefits. treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders, and for such possible health benefits as lowering cholesterol levels, reducing risk of colon cancer, and losing weight. Originally it was thought that dietary fibre was completely indigestible and did not provide any energy.
Some of them have important health benefits, while others are mostly useless. It’s important to keep in mind that there are many different types of fiber. Perhaps a more helpful way to categorize fiber is fermentable versus non-fermentable, which refers to whether friendly gut bacteria can use it or not. Fiber is one of the main reasons whole plant foods are good for you. But be sure to talk with your doctor before changing your diet… READ MORE