Transmission generally occurs through contact between infected and susceptible animals. The virus can be excreted into the air during the acute phase of infection. The virus is more-or-less exclusively transmitted by the bite of a small hematophagous dipteran of the genus Culicoides in the Ceratopogonidae family.
Coxiella burnetii colonizes the placenta and causes premature delivery, low birth weight, and abortion. Bovine tuberculosis is predominantly a respiratory disease affecting the lungs and associated lymph nodes. Infection is often subclinical, while clinical signs, when present, are not specifically distinctive of the disease. Symptoms may include physical weakness, anorexia, emaciation, enlargement of lymph nodes, and coughing, particularly in advanced cases of bovine tuberculosis. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus is a pneumovirus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family.
It is closely related to human RSV, which often infects the airways of children. Both are single-stranded RNA enveloped viruses. In bovines, RSV causes respiratory infections in young animals and dairy cows.
paratuberculosis (sometimes abbreviated MAP) in the small intestine of ruminants. It is a worldwide animal health problem, especially affecting beef and dairy herds. Leptospirosis is considered to be zoonotic, and can be transmitted to humans if a person comes in contact with water or soil that has been contaminated by urine or body fluids of an infected animal.
Symptoms of a Brucella infection are often decreased milk production, weight loss, abortion, infertility, and lameness. Brucella uptake occurs orally and via skin wounds or mucus membranes. Brucella bacteria are mainly excreted with aborted fetal tissue and placenta, and with semen and milk. Airborne transmission is the primary pathway for infection of M. bovis within and between species; however, animals may also become infected if they ingest large quantities of the bacterium.
When there are signs in cattle, the most common are hyperthermia, abortion towards the end of gestation (in the eighth month), edema (of the udders, teats, vulva, and hocks), and erythema (mucosa, teats, and udders). Seven or eight days after infection, sheep develop acute signs-high temperature, lethargy, and self-isolation from the herd. Shortly after the rise in temperature, the buccal mucosa becomes red and swollen, and large volumes of foamy saliva are produced. The tongue swells up and in some cases turns blue (hence the name of the disease).
Livestock mortality, treatment costs, abortion, reduced production, discarded milk, and reduced consumer confidence all contribute to the cost of Salmonella to cattle industries. Paratuberculosis in domestic livestock may entail significant economic losses due to several factors, such as reduced production, premature culling, and veterinary costs. In the United States, paratuberculosis is of growing concern to the cattle industry because the presence of the disease impacts international marketing of cattle and cattle products, which causes economic losses to producers.
In dairy cows, milk production falls off. Some strains are implicated in ocular and respiratory affections (conjunctivitis, rhinitis, tracheitis, pneumonia). Other strains have been isolated in genital affections (orchitis, epididymitis, vaginitis, abortion, metritis, mastitis) and in disorders associated with the digestive tract (glossitis, enteritis, tumors of the rumen). Distribution is worldwide and the virus infects a range of ruminants, including bison, buffalo, sheep, and goats. In cattle and goats, the infection is usually asymptomatic.
hardjo-bovis is also associated with persistent reproductive tract infections that can cause infertility in cattle. FMD is a highly contagious viral disease that affects all cloven-hoofed animals, and is widespread throughout the world. FMD cannot be differentiated clinically from other vesicular diseases such as swine vesicular disease (SVD).
Bovine/Cattle Disease Solutions
Leptospirosis occurs worldwide, and while the disease is typically reported in tropical climates, it can also be found in temperate climates during periods of rainfall. Leptospirosis most commonly affects pigs, cattle, and horses, and displays a variety of clinical effects ranging from mild infection to organ failure to death. IBR is caused by a herpes virus (BHV-1), which infects the respiratory tract, causing problems on these channels (tracheitis and rhinitis), fever, abortions and infertility. It can cause death when the disease spreads rapidly within a herd. IBR is transmitted by direct contact through respiratory, eye and genital secretions.